Article 55 of the Egyptian Constitution stipulates that: “All those who are apprehended, detained or have their freedom restricted shall be treated in a way that preserves their dignity. They may not be tortured, terrorized, or coerced. They may not be physically or mentally harmed, or arrested and confined in designated locations that are appropriate according to humanitarian and health standards”.
The successive article, 56, states that “Prisons and detention centers shall be subject to judicial oversight. All that which violates the dignity of the person and or endangers his health is forbidden.”
Prisons are known to be the places where the freedom of those who committed unlawful acts that threaten people’s security and safety is restricted, working to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into the community. However, it has been noticeable in recent years that prisons have become a tool used by the authorities to retaliate against and clamp down on political dissidents; by depriving them of many of the rights guaranteed to them by the Constitution and the law, leaving some of them vulnerable to slow death as a result of medical negligence and poor conditions of detention, which is reflected in the increase in the number of deaths in custody in the past few years.
Therefore, this report is concerned with monitoring the most important violations that prisoners and detainees are subjected to inside the detention facilities. Some of these violations represent a frequent form or pattern that is adopted by the prison authorities to harass and crack down on inmates in general, and political detainees and prisoners of conscience- who are detained because of his views- in particular. Such a matter basically constitutes an encroachment on inmates’ rights that is to be added to the violations and anti-freedom practices they are subjected to inside prisons, as stipulated in the Egyptian constitution, article 65 thereof states that: “Freedom of thought and opinion is guaranteed. Every person shall have the right to express his/her opinion verbally, in writing, through imagery, or by any other means of expression and publication.”
Forms of common violations inside the Egyptian prisons:
First: Medical negligence
Egypt’s prisons witnessed many cases of medical negligence where inmates were unable to get adequate health care in spite of the provisions of prison laws and regulations, which stipulate the following:
Article 36 of the Prisons Regulation Law:
“If the prison physician determines that a convict suffers from a disease that puts his life at risk or incapacitates him totally, his case shall be submitted to the director of the medical department for prisons for examination, with the participation of the medical examiner, to consider releasing him.
The decision to release the convict shall be implemented after its confirmation by the Director General of Prisons and approval by the Public Prosecutor. The competent administration and prosecution shall be informed accordingly.
The competent administration within the jurisdiction of which the released convict requests to reside shall refer him to the Ministry of Health physician for a medical examination once every 6 months, and shall submit a report on his condition to be sent to the Prisons Authority to ascertain his health condition in anticipation of a possible revocation of the decision to release him, if need be.
The Director General of Prisons may entrust the director of the medical department for prisons and the medical examiner with the examination of the released convict to ascertain his condition, whenever he deems necessary.
A prisoner released according to the above procedure shall be returned to prison to complete his sentence by order of the Public Prosecutor, if it is established through the re-examination conducted by the two above mentioned physicians that the health grounds for which he has been released no longer exist. He may also be returned by order of the Public Prosecutor if he changes his place of residence without informing the administration within the jurisdiction of which he resides.
The period the released patient spends outside the prison shall be deducted from his sentence.”
(The last amendment under Law 106 of 2015).
Among the cases that suffered from poor health care:
1- Mohamed Saleh Sorour
He is a Nubian activist who was arrested in September 2017 along with a group of Nubian activists against the backdrop of their participation in a peaceful march, in what was known in the media as “Tambourines Detainees”.
Mohamed Saleh, who was suffering from diabetes, went on a hunger strike along with a group of his co-prisoners to protest the authorities preventing them from attending their detention renewal session. As a result, he entered a diabetic coma and because he hadn’t received the necessary medical care, he died in custody on 4 November 2017. ()
2- Mohamed Mahdy Aakef
He is the former Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood and was arrested in mid-2013 in connection with the case known in the media as “the Guidance Office incidents”, in which he faced charges of incitement to violence, killing protesters and resisting the authorities. Aakef was sentenced to life imprisonment before the Court of Cassation rescinded the ruling and, accordingly, ordered his retrial. He had been held at the Tora Farm Annex in Tora Prisons complex.
Aakef’s old age and illness (being a cancer patient) didn’t serve as an intercessor for him to receive a health pardon, and because of the poor conditions in jail, his health had deteriorated and was consequently sent to the Old Qasr al-Aini Hospital although his family requested to transfer him to a private hospital. The Ministry of Interior didn’t respond to the family’s request, although it announced otherwise. Shortly afterwards, on 22 September 2017, Aakef died in the Qasr al-Aini Hospital.
3- Hossam Hassan Wahbi Hassan
Hossam was serving a 15-year prison sentence at Alexandria’s Borg Al-Arab Prison against the backdrop of the Rab’aa Sit-in dispersal incidents.
On 11 August 2017, Hossam fell into a coma due to an overdose of anesthesia given to him by the prison doctor to prepare him for colonoscopy. He was then sent to the Nile Hospital in Alexandria, and when his family requested to transfer him to a private hospital or doctor, their request was rejected. () Consequently, in January 2018, Hossam died inside the hospital as a result of the medical negligence he suffered during his detention. ()
3- Abdel-Moneim Abo El-Fetouh
The security forces arrested Abdel-Moneim Abo El-Fetouh, head of “Egypt Strong” Party, in February 2018 upon his return from London. He is facing charges of spreading false news and inciting against state institutions. ()
Abo El-Fetuoh, who suffers from chronic diseases such as diabetes and blood pressure, is facing arbitrary deprivation of the necessary medical care inside his jail at Tora Farm Prison, which resulted in further complications of such diseases leading to a severe deterioration in his health, to the point that he attended his detention renewal session in a wheelchair. Abo El-Fetuoh suffers from extremely high blood pressure, an enlarged prostate and a weakened heart muscle, which puts his life at risk and increases the possibility of being added to the toll of death as a result of medical negligence inside prisons. ()
In this example, we refer to Article 36 of the Prison Regulation Law mentioned earlier in Example No. 2.
4- Mohamed Morsi Al-Ayyat
He is the former president of Egypt. He was arrested on 3 July 2013 against the backdrop of 30 June Revolution and was accused of spying for a foreign country. ()
Morsi, who was suffering from diabetes, moved between more than one detention facility following his arrest; from the Abu Qir Naval Base to Tora maximum-security prison “Al-Aqrab” then to the Tora Farm Annex in Tora Prisons complex. He was denied access to health care which is necessary for diabetes patients. In a testimony given before the court in November 2017, Morsi stated that his blood sugar/glucose level decreases while sleeping and that he didn’t take the appropriate diet for diabetes patients, adding that his untreated diabetes had caused his eye vision to deteriorate. He also told judges that the prison authorities refused to implement the court order to provide him with the necessary health care and the essential medicine delivered from outside the prison by his family, who were forced to file a case demanding to merely be allowed to visit their relative.
4- Omar Adel
Photojournalist Omar Adel was arrested in August 2018 and had been held at Tora Prison (Investigation) on a charge of joining a terrorist group after he was sentenced to 10 years in prison in connection with the Case No. 2 of 2016.
Omar was suffering health and psychological issues which entailed not leaving him alone, and this is what he tried to explain to the prison administration when it decided to place him in solitary confinement, but the prison officials and doctor thought Omar was malingering or pretending to be ill so they put him in a disciplinary cell on 18 July 2019. Then in the evening of 21 July, the jailer called Omar but he didn’t reply and when he opened the cell he found him lying on the ground. He informed the prison’s doctor who tried to help him but to no avail; as Omar had passed away. It’s worth mentioning that the prison authorities brought an inmate who is a medical expert to examine Omar’s health condition, a matter which indicates the prison doctor’s inefficiency and lack of experience. ()
5- Shady Habash
Young film director Shady Habash was arrested in March 2018, days after he released the song ‘Balha’. Shady had been held for more than two years in Tora (Investigation) Prison over the Case No. 480 of 2018 State Security, in which he was accused of joining a group that was established contrary to the provisions of the law, disseminating false news, and misusing social media. Habash remained in custody although he had already exceeded the two-year legal limit for remand detention.
The night before he died, Shady complained of severe stomach pain and fatigue so he was taken to the prison infirmary, where the prison doctor administered first aid and gave him intestinal antiemetic and antispasmodic medicines, and then sent him back to his cell. However, Shady continued to suffer the same symptoms, which proves that the doctor misdiagnosed his condition, as confirmed in the testimonies of Shady’s co-prisoners who asserted that he had ingested a large amount of hand sanitizer/alcohol used as a preventive measure to prevent the coronavirus infection. This means that Shady’s case was so serious that he was in need to be sent to an outside hospital for treatment of (alcohol) poisoning but this didn’t happen. ()
Article 33 of the Prison Regulation Law stipulate that:
” Governmental and university medical facilities are obligated to treat all inmates referred from prisons, as provided for by the regulations, terms and conditions issued by a decision of the Ministers of Health and Higher Education in coordination with the Minister of Interior.”
6- Essam El-Erian
He was arrested in October 2013 and charged with spying for a foreign country to obtain unlicensed weapons in connection with the case known as “the Guidance Office incidents”, in addition to the charges pressed against him in the case of “Wadi al-Natrun prison escape”. El-Erian had been held at Tora high-security prison “Al-Aqrab” in Tora prison complex. He received several rulings ranging from life imprisonment to death sentences. ()
El-Erian was infected with hepatitis C while in prison. He had submitted to the court several requests to transfer him to the Liver Institute for treatment or to bring a commission from the institute to examine him in his jail, but the prison administration refused his requests. He also made several complaints about the poor prison conditions, prison officials’ failure to provide inmates with adequate food (in terms of its quantity and quality), and the lack of essential medicines needed for his medical treatment. As a result, on 13 August 2020, El-Erian died of a heart attack in his prison cell. ()
Article 80 of the Prison Regulation Law states that:
“The prison’s director or superintendent shall accept any earnest complaint from the prisoner, whether oral or written, and shall convey it to the Public Prosecution or the competent authority after registering it in the register of complaints.” (The last amendment under Law 106 of 2015).
Second: Solitary confinement
Legislators and lawmakers defined the penalties that may be imposed on prisoners or pretrial detainees. These penalties include solitary confinement for a period not exceeding 15 days. They also assigned the competent authority to impose such penalties and defined the required quorum for each of them. For example, the prison superintendent is entrusted to impose certain penalties including solitary confinement for a period not exceeding 15 days, while the assistant minister for the Prisons Authority sector (Director General of Prisons) is entrusted to impose the same penalty but for a period not exceeding 30 days and at the request of the prison’s director or superintendent. All such penalties are associated with guarantees for prisoners and inmates, such as: the necessity to be notified of the charges attributed to them or the acts they are alleged to have committed and to have their statements and testimonies and their defense’s pleas heard, in addition to the guarantees stipulated in prison regulations including the right to visit the prison doctor on a daily basis for those who are held in solitary confinement since it has a serious impact on the life and health of pretrial detainees. However, the prevailing and frequent imposition of such disciplinary measure (solitary confinement) on political prisoners for an indefinite period- which may reach several years in some cases- raises questions about the purpose of using it against a certain group/category of prisoners. So, did this group of detained politicians and opinion-holders commit a sin that is worth doubling the punishment inflicted on them to this extent? Or are the authorities clamping down on them and violating their humanity to punish them for voicing their opposition to the regime?
In the following lines, we will introduce some examples of cases that are languishing behind bars under the yoke of solitary confinement/ isolated incarceration for periods that exceed the legal limit stipulated in the Prisons Regulation Law, article 43 thereof states that:
Punishments that may be imposed on prisoners are: 1-
5- Isolated incarceration for a period not exceeding 15 days
(as stipulated in the last amendment under Law 106 of 2015)….
And article 44 thereof states;
4- Isolated incarceration for a period not exceeding one week. These punishments are imposed after informing the prisoner of the acts he is alleged to have committed, hearing his statements and investigating his defense. The decision of the prison director or superintendent imposing a punishment shall be final. As for the other punishments, they are imposed by the Director General of Prisons at the request of the prison director or superintendent, after establishing a procès -verbal containing the prisoner’s statements, the investigation of his defense and the testimony of witnesses.
(The last amendment under Law 106 of 2015)…
So, as indicated in the aforementioned two articles regulating the disciplinary measures carried out inside prisons, the prison director should not use the punishment of solitary confinement until after resorting to all the disciplinary means against prisoners of conscience and politicians. Or do those in charge of prison administrations (prison officials) consider, otherwise, the following prisoners as serious criminals who deserve to be punished to this extent?
1- Hesham Gaafar
Despite receiving a release order in April 2019, Hesham Gaafar had suffered the brutality of solitary confinement for more than three years since his arrest in October 2015 and his detention in Tora maximum-security prison “Al-Aqrab” over trumped-up charges, pertaining to receiving funds from foreign bodies with the aim to harm the country’s national security and joining a banned group.
Expressively describing the conditions of his detention, Hesham told his wife (when she visited him in the hospital) that his cell is in total darkness that he barely sees, and because it doesn’t have a window or any other source of air, he has difficulty in breathing. He also said that he feels as if he is in a grave and that he would die there, adding that when the prison guards moved him from this place, he understood what it means for a person to be born again. Gafar had spent a few months in the hospital and was sent back to solitary confinement.
2- Ola al-Qaradawi
She was arrested in July 2017 and was placed in Al-Qanater Women’s Prison on charges of: incitement to demonstrations and acts of violence, belonging to an outlawed group, and seeking to ignite public opinion against state institutions in partnership with others. Since that date, Ola has suffered the punishment of solitary confinement while on remand, which means that she has spent nearly three years in isolated incarceration, which is twice the maximum period of pretrial detention stipulated in the law (as indicated in the aforementioned articles).
Ola said that she is confined to a 2 x 2 meter cell which she is not allowed to leave except for 5 minutes a day to go to an outside bathroom, which prompted her not to eat normally to avoid being in need of a bathroom.
3- Hossam Khalaf
Hossam Khalaf is a member of al-Wasat Party. He was arrested on the same date his wife Ola al-Qaradawi was arrested and then sent to Tora maximum-security prison “Al-Aqrab” and since then, he suffers the same conditions of solitary confinement as his wife in the Qanater Women’s Prison.
4- Ahmed Doma
Since his arrest in December 2013 on charges of trespassing on public and private property, assaulting police personnel, attempting to break into the Cabinet building and forming a gathering, activist Ahmed Doma has been placed in solitary confinement in Tora investigation prison. Solitary confinement is not the only additional punishment that Doma suffers, but he is also being prevented from leaving his cell at visits time. He is also being barred from performing prayers in the mosque or going to the prison library. All such harsh conditions have led to deterioration in Ahmed Doma’s health, which prompted his lawyer to file a lawsuit demanding to put an end to Doma’s solitary confinement that violates the law.
5- Mohamed al-Qassas
He was arrested in February 2018 on charges of: inciting against state institutions, holding organizational meetings with armed elements of the Muslim Brotherhood, spreading false news that disturbs public peace. He was then placed in solitary confinement in Tora maximum-security prison “Al-Aqrab”. And in continuation of the policy of victimization and harassment of detainees and the abusive measures carried out by the prison authorities against inmates, al-Qassas was denied any physical activity or daily exercise. He was also barred from receiving medicines, communicating with family, lawyers, or even other detainees, and delivering his own needs and essentials. ()
Third: Denial of visits:
Lawmakers guarantee the prisoner, regardless of his accusation, the right to visit and communicate with his family. Article 38 of the Prisons Regulation Law stipulates that:
” Subject to the provisions of the Criminal Procedure Law, every convict has the right to keep up a correspondence or telephone his family for a fee, and to be visited by their family twice a month, under the supervision of the prison’s authorities and in accordance to the procedures determined by the internal regulations…
And for a remand prisoner the same right unless a decision stating otherwise, is issued from the competent Public Prosecution Office or the competent investigative judge, in accordance to the procedures determined by the internal regulations. The prison administration also works to treat the inmates’ visitors humanely and ensures them adequate places to wait and visit.”
(The last amendment under Law 106 of 2015)
The law also guarantees the inmate’s right to meet his lawyer in private, whether at his request or the lawyer’s, as stipulated in Article 39 of the Prisons Regulation Law:
“The lawyer of a prisoner shall be allowed to meet with him alone, provided a written permission is obtained from the Public Prosecution, and from the investigating judge in cases he is entrusted with investigating, whether the meeting is at the request of the prisoner or the lawyer.”
As indicated by the provisions of the law, the prisoner has the right to be visited by his family twice a month and to meet his lawyer, but the political regime has another opinion; as it believes that this right may be waived among political detainees and prisoners of conscience as a way to crack down on them and punish them for voicing their opposition to state policies. Following are some examples of those who are deprived of this right:
1- Essam Sultan
The security forces arrested lawyer Essam Sultan in July 2013 on charges of inciting the killing and torture of citizens inside the Rab’a sit-in and insulting the judiciary. He was then placed at Tora Farm Prison before he was later transferred to Al-Aqrab Prison, which is designated to compound the penalty meted out to detainees. Essam was deprived of the right to receive visits stipulated in the law. Therefore, he filed a lawsuit before the Court of Administrative Justice against the Ministry of Interior because it denied him access to family visits. The court ruled to rescind the family visit ban deeming it “illegal” as it violates the provisions of the constitution and the law (). However, in a statement delivered in August 2015, Essam’s wife revealed that she was able to visit him for only five minutes, three months after the visitation ban, which means that the ban has been repeated even after the court’s ruling that acknowledges Essam’s right to be visited by his family. ()
2- Moataz Wadnan
After conducting a press interview with Hesham Geneina, the former head of the Central Auditing Authority (CAA), the security forces arrested journalist Moataz Wadnan in February 2018, and the Supreme State Security Prosecution charged him with two charges of spreading false news and joining a banned group. And as usual, in such kind of cases, Wadnan was placed at Al-Aqran Prison as a retaliatory measure, and since his arrest in February 2018 until February 2020 his family was able to visit him for only six times, i.e. equivalent to a quarter of the eligible visits during this period. Wadnan’s wife reported that the duration of the first visit was only 20 minutes and the second visit was 12 minutes. She added that the prison officials didn’t allow her to sit with Moataz alone as there were two officers standing next to them, which made her not able to speak freely with her husband, who in turn couldn’t be able to speak about the violations he experienced in prison for fear of punishment.
4- Hoda Abdel-Moneim
Lawyer Hoda Abdel Moneim, 60, was arrested on 1 November 2018. She had been forcibly disappeared for 20 days until she appeared before the Supreme State Security Prosecution on 21 November 2018 as she was accused of joining a banned group and taking part in the financing of it. Then, on 24 August 2020, Amnesty International called on its website for allowing Hoda’s family to visit her in prison, reporting that Al-Qanater Prison authorities deprived her of family visits since the date of her arrest, which means that by deducting the period during which prison visits were suspended following the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic in March 2020, Hoda would be prevented from visitation for more than fifteen months under normal circumstances before the Covid-19 outbreak. ()
Fourth: Deprivation of phone calls
By checking Article 38 of the Prisons Regulation Law mentioned earlier, we can find that legislators acknowledged the inmates’ right to make a phone call for a fee. However, throughout many years, the Ministry of Interior has been wasting this right amidst silence and inaction by the judiciary and despite the fact that the Prisons Law ratified by the President of the Republic in 2015 has allowed this right.
We do not need to give examples of this violation; it is the most common one. All prisoners have been deprived of the right to make phone calls.
Fifth: Deprivation of the completion of studies and taking exams:
The Egyptian Prisons Regulation Law guaranteed the prisoner’s right to complete his education and take exams and obligated the prison authorities to provide the necessary tools for detained students to study and take their exams.
“The prison administration shall encourage prisoners to read and learn, facilitate study for prisoners who want to pursue their studies and allow them to take the examinations in the locations where they are held”.
Nevertheless, the security services sometimes use exams as a tool to punish students imprisoned over cases of a political nature; by preventing them from taking exams or by not providing them with the tools of study such as books, papers and pens, especially in the high –security prisons.
The following are some of the examples:
1- Ahmed Ashraf Nassar
He is a student at the College of Pharmacy. He was arrested on 18 February 2015 in implementation of a life imprisonment sentence handed down against him upon a default judgment issued against him along with 267 defendants, on charges of: the arson of the Egyptian Scientific Complex and the Roads and Bridges Authority building and the possession of firearms, white weapons and narcotic substances in the case known in the media as “the cabinet incidents” over which Nassar was ordered detained at Tora Prison. () According to his father, Ahmed Nassar was prevented from taking the last year’s final exams as the College of Pharmacy had promised to provide an exceptional exam (specially designated) for Ahmed but it required his attendance on campus given the existence of practical exams that need to be performed in laboratories, but the prison authorities refused to let Ahmed attend the exam. ()
2- Amr Rabie
He is an engineering college student, and was arrested in March 2014 on charges of joining “Beit al-Maqdes” organization. The prison authorities had refrained from receiving the books and papers that Amr needed to prepare for the exams, and when his mother tried, during one of the visits, to deliver them to his son, they told her that there are new directives to hand over these stuff to the Prisons Authority from where the prison officials will be able to immediately deliver them to Amr. However, when Amr’s mother went there, she was told that there are no new instructions in this regard and that the prison administration is the one in charge of receiving books and papers and delivering them to her detainees. ()
Sixth: Preventing the entry of food- or some kinds of food- to prisoners:
Interior Minister Decision No. 691 of 1998, amended by Resolution No. 468 of 2017, specified and determined the components of the meals that must be disbursed and delivered to prisoners, in a way that guarantees preservation of their physical structure and protection from diseases that could result from malnutrition. Hence, the law approved for detainees and prisoners three daily meals that contain the necessary nutrients specified in grams. The Prisons Regulation Law also guarantees the prisoner’s right to obtain food brought to him by his family during visits.
However, in practice, and according to many testimonies of the families of prisoners and detainees, which ANHRI has received, the prison authorities always refuse to let in medicines, books and many kinds of food, including: fruits, cumin, thyme, taro, molokhia, okra and sweet potatoes!!
Such a matter indicates that this right (the entry of food), like many other rights, is being wasted or circumvented when it comes to political prisoners. According to the testimonies of families that convey some of the sufferings of their relatives inside prisons, we find unanimous agreement that the food delivered to detainees from inside prison is not in conformity with the specifications laid down in the Interior Minister Resolution, which prompts prisoners to wait for the visit of their family, who may bring them food suitable for human use to help them avoid the prison food for a day or two. But the prison authorities have not failed in shuttering the only breathing space in the face of prisoners. So we find prisoners’ families often complaining about the prison administration’s refusal to enter most of the food they bring to their relatives in visits, forcing inmates to buy their needs from the canteens or stores at double prices and of poor quality.
The following are some examples:
The family of Walid Shawky:
Walid Shawky is a dentist who has been detained “scratch out detained” held in remand detention since October 2018 pending Case No.621 of 2018.
His wife says in a long message published on “Darb” website:
“There has been no way to communicate with Walid since the outbreak of the coronavirus, and when I ask for a letter, the answer is “Okay, maybe next time”. Entering food following the coronavirus has become “very difficult”, delivering medicine has also become very difficult. They banned mango and in Ramadan, they banned dates.
The family of Kamal al-Balshi:
Kamal al-Balshi is an Egyptian young man who works in the field of tourism and has nothing to do with politics, but because he is the brother of prominent journalist Khaled al-Balshi, he was arrested.
In September 2020, Kamal al-Balshi was stopped by a police officer at Downtown Cairo while he was heading to his brother’s place where he resides. After letting him go, the officer who stopped him realized that he is Khaled al-Balshi’s brother, so he re-arrested him. He was then added to the Case No. 880 of 2020, known in the media as “September 20 incidents”, in which he is accused of protesting, spreading false news, joining a terrorist group, and misusing social media, based on an investigation memo that constitutes nothing more than a mere unsubstantiated statement without evidence. He was then transferred to Tora Prison.
In a message sent by journalist Khaled al-Balshi to the Arabic Network for Human Rights Information (ANHRI), he wrote:
“They banned all kinds of vegetables. They banned a certain type of fruit which is guava, while they allowed another type which is apple, even though they allowed the first type for another person. They allowed the entry of one set of clothes, although Kamal has been held behind bars for two months. They banned all types of roumi cheese, Istanbul cheese and feta, as well as beef luncheon meats, and dry baked food such as fayish (crunchy baked pâté) and ajwa (dates).
They returned the detergent, and they also banned sanitizer and paper towels in spite of the coronavirus pandemic.
We were keen to prepare for it before the prison visit. Abdul Sattar and I took a long time to ask about what is allowed and what is banned, what I should bring and what I shouldn’t. We prepared the required clothes and vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers and lemons) a kilo each, in addition to fruit (apples and guava) and roumi cheese, Istanbul cheese, honey, meat, rice, toiletries, disinfectant for the coronavirus, and toilet paper. All the aforementioned items got rejected except the meat, apples, and lemons, one set of clothes, and part of the toiletries, while the sanitizer and tissue paper were given back, even the white Crocs that some detainees told us to bring was also rejected, saying “we only allow one finger slippers”.
It should be noted that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, issued by the United Nations General Assembly in December 1966 and ratified by Egypt in August 1981 in accordance with Republican Resolution 536 of 1981, was published in the Official Gazette and entered into force in April 1982. Article 10 (Clause No. 1) of the International Covenant stipulates: “All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person. The same article, clause No. 3, states that “penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.”
Nevertheless, it seems that prison officials in Egypt see otherwise. They usually intend to harass and clamp down on political opponents, not to mention the mistreatment of inmates in general. So we recommend at the end of this report that the judicial authority assumes its oversight role, and that the authorities establish mechanisms that enable effective oversight to ensure the implementation of the law, so that prisoners of conscience and political prisoners can obtain their rights guaranteed by law.
 BBC: Who are the Tambourine detainees who are being tried in Egypt? – Publication date: December 2017, Accessed date: September 2020
 Committee for Justice: Egypt: Detainee is in a coma as a result of medical negligence in Bor Al Arab prison – Publication date: September 2017 Accessed date September 2020
https://www.cfjustice.org/%D9%85%D8%B5%D8%B1-%D9 % 85% D8% B9% D8% AA% D9% 82% D9% 84-% D9% 8A% D8% AF% D8% AE% D9% 84-% D9% 81% D9% 8A-% D8% BA% D9% 8A% D8% A8% D9% 88% D8% A8% D8% A9-% D9% 86% D8% AA% D9% 8A% D8% AC% D8% A9-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% A5% D9% 87% D9% 85% D8% A7% D9% 84 /? Lang = ar
 Salam International Organization for the Protection of Human Rights: The Egyptian citizen “Hossam Hassan Wehbe” dies due to deliberate medical negligence inside his place of detention- Publication date: January 2018- Accessed date: September 2020
https://sphngo.org/%D9%88%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B7% D9% 86-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 85% D8% B5% D8% B1% D9% 8A-% D8% AD% D8% B3% D8% A7% D9% 85-% D8% AD % D8% B3% D9% 86-% D9% 88% D9% 87% D8% A8% D9% 8A-% D8% A8% D8% A5% D9% 87% D9% 85 /
 “Youm7” news website: Detention of Abdel Moneim Abul-Fotouh renewed for 45 days over incitement against the state- Publication date: July 2020 – Access date: September 2020
https://www.youm7.com/story/2020/7/14/%D8% AA% D8% AC% D8% AF% D9% 8A% D8% AF-% D8% AD% D8% A8% D8% B3-% D8% B9% D8% A8% D8% AF% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 85% D9% 86% D8% B9% D9% 85-% D8% A3% D8% A8% D9% 88-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 81% D8% AA% D9% 88% D8% AD-% D9% 81% D9% 89-% D8% A8% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% AA% D8% AD% D8% B1% D9% 8A% D8% B6-% D8 % B6% D8% AF-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% AF% D9% 88% D9% 84% D8% A9-45 / 4878686
 Cairo Center for Human Rights Studies: Egypt: Human rights organizations condemn the political abuse of Abdel Moneim Abul-Fotouh in his prison and confirm: Medical negligence in prisons is a premeditated murder- Publication date: July 2019- Accessed date: September 2020
https://cihrs.org/%D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% A5% D9% 87% D9% 85% D8% A7% D9% 84-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% B7% D8% A8% D9% 8A-% D8% B9% D8% A8% D8% AF-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 85% D9% 86% D8% B9% D9% 85-% D8% A3% D8% A8% D9% 88-% D8 % A7% D9% 84% D9% 81% D8% AA% D9% 88% D8% AD /
 Deutsche Welle: Egyptian TV: former President Mohamed Morsi dies in court- Publication date: June 2019- View date: September 2020
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 IFHR: Omar Adel: Murder is probable, not natural death – Publication date July 2019 – Accessed September 2020
 Deutsche Welle: Is alcohol poisoning the cause of Shadi Habash’s death in custody? – Publication date: May 2020- Accessed date: September 2020
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 BBC: Essam El-Erian: the doctor and MB leader who died in his prison cell in Egypt- Publication date: August 2020- Accessed date: September 2020
 IFHR: Essam El-Erian died by medical negligence: The Egyptian authorities must immediately stop the policy of slow killing inside prisons- Publication date: August 2020- Accessed date: September 2020
 Hurriyet Center: Statement on the conditions of detention of the head of the Strong Egypt Party and his deputy- Publication date: March 2018- Accessed date: September 2020
 Al-Wafd: The rationale for the ruling on canceling the decision to ban family visit for “Essam Sultan” – Publication date: February 2015 – Access date: September 2020
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Al-Masry Al-Youm: Essam Sultan’s wife narrates the details of the “5-minute visit” – Publication date: August 2015 – Accessed September 2020
 Amnesty: Egypt: Additional Information: Detained Human Rights Lawyer Denied Visits: Hoda Abdel Moneim- Publication Date: August 2020- Accessed Date: September 2020
 Al-Masry Al-Youm: The family of pharmacist Ashraf Nassar reveals the details of his trial twice in “the cabinet incidents”- Publication date November 2016 – access date October 2020
 Masr Al-Arabyia: Students in prisons .. obstructed and banned from exams- Publication date: April 2016- Access date: October 2020
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 Al-Masry Al-Youm: “Test Them” … a human rights campaign that monitors cases of imprisoned students being prevented from their exams Date of Publication: June 2015 – Accessed Date: October 2020