What does pretrial detention mean?

  • The Egyptian law doesn’t expressly define what is meant by “pretrial detention”, but it refers to the term as a precautionary measure and one of the investigation’s guarantees. Also, the Court of Cassation describes it as an abhorrent practice that contradicts the presumption of innocence which is an inherent and a non-derogable human right. By virtue of this procedure, the person accused is put in prison during all, or some of, the investigation period which may reach two years, which is the maximum period of preventive detention in accordance with the provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code- Articles 142 and 143 thereof- or may exceed the two-year limit in violation of the law.

Does pretrial detention have rules or conditions? 

  • Yes. Pretrial detention cannot be deemed permissible unless it meet a set of precise rules and conditions:
  1. If the crime is a felony or misdemeanor that is punishable with imprisonment for a period no less than a year, and if the evidence is sufficient.
  2. When crimes are committed in flagrante delicto (when the suspect was caught in the act of committing the offense), and when the crime is either a misdemeanor or a felony, and the judgment is enforceable; in case of theft or drugs misdemeanors and other cases stipulated by law.
  3. When there is a fear of the suspect fleeing or absconding.
  4. When there is a fear that the interests of the investigation will be compromised either by influencing the victim or witnesses or tampering with evidence or by reaching agreements with the remaining accused to distort the truth.
  5. When it is necessary to prevent grossly compromising security and public order as a result of the magnitude of the crime.
  6. If the accused does not have a known address or place of residence in Egypt.
  7. The remand order or one of the alternative measures for him must be issued by a member of the prosecution with the rank of deputy attorney at least; i.e. it is not permissible to issue the remand order from an assistant prosecutor.
  8. Prosecutors must also consider the circumstances of the cases presented to them and to look closely at the extent of the necessity of pretrial detention, in addition to taking into account the defendant’s social circumstances, family and financial ties and the extent of the seriousness of the crime, and this is up to their discernment and appreciation.

(Article 134 of the Criminal Procedure Code)

What are the guarantees of pretrial detention? 

  • Pretrial detainees’ guarantees as stipulated in the Criminal Procedure Code and the Constitution:
  1. It is not permissible to issue a pretrial detention order without interrogating or questioning the accused
  2. It is obligatory to hear the Public Prosecution and the defense’s statements before issuing a pretrial detention order
  3. It is obligatory to inform the accused of the reasons behind his remand detention
  4. The pretrial detention order must be reasoned
  5. The detention order must be presented to the Public Prosecutor
  6. To allow lodging an appeal against decisions to order a pretrial detention or to extend its period

(Articles 134, 136, 139, 143, 166, 167 of the Criminal Procedure Code and Article 54 of the Egyptian Constitution)

Do pretrial detainees have legal rights? 

Of course, detainees held on remand have several legal rights from the moment they got arrested to the investigation process and detention. These rights are represented in the following lines:

  1. It is not permissible to arrest, search, detain, or restrict the freedom of anyone in any way except by virtue of a reasoned judicial order that was required in the context of an investigation
  2. Every person whose freedom is restricted shall be immediately notified of the reasons therefore; shall be informed of his/her rights in writing
  3. He shall be immediately enabled to contact his/her relatives and lawyer; and shall be brought before the investigation authority within twenty four (24) hours as of the time of restricting his/her freedom.
  4. Investigation may not start with the accused unless his/her lawyer is present. A lawyer shall be seconded for persons who do not have one. Necessary assistance shall be rendered to people with disability, according to procedures prescribed by Law.
  5. Every person who is either arrested, detained, or his freedom is restricted shall be treated in a manner that maintains his dignity. He/she may not be tortured, intimidated, coerced, or physically or morally harmed.
  6. He may not be seized or detained except in places designated for that purpose, which shall be adequate on human and health levels. The State shall cater for the needs of people with disability. Any violation of the above is a crime and the perpetrator shall be punished under the law.
  7. The accused possesses the right to remain silent. Any statement that is proven to have been given by the detainee under pressure of any of that which is stated above, or the threat of such, shall be considered null and void.

(Articles 54 and 55 of the Egyptian Constitution)

What are the other legal rights guaranteed for pretrial detainees? 

Those held in preventive detention have the right to appeal against their detention renewal orders every 30 days.

What does that mean? Is it not supposed that he is entitled to appeal against every detention renewal order issued against him?

  • Yes, according to the law, a person held in remand has the right to appeal his detention order at any time, but if this appeal is rejected, he is not entitled to submit a new appeal except after 30 days as of the date of submitting the last rejected appeal, whereas the period of time for an appeal to be filed shall be twenty four hours.

(Articles 166 and 167 of the Criminal Procedure Code)

Do pretrial detainees have legal rights throughout their detention period? 

    • Yes, according to prison laws and regulations, there are several rights that should be guaranteed for all those held in pretrial detention, as stipulated in the Prison Regulation Law No. 396 of 1956 and its (Internal) Regulations/bylaws, along with its amendment by Presidential Decree No. 106 of 2015. These rights include:
    • Persons in preventive custody shall be kept in places separate from other prisoners. A person in preventive custody may be allowed to stay in a furnished room for an amount not exceeding fifteen pounds per day, within the capacity of places and facilities in the prison according to the prison regulations. (Article 14)
    • Persons in preventive custody have the right to wear their private clothes, unless the prison administration decides, for reasons of health, cleanliness or in the interest of security, that they should wear the same clothes intended for other prisoners. (Article 15)
    • Persons in preventive custody may bring the food they need from outside the prison or buy it in the prison at the specified price. If they do not so want or can, they shall receive the determined food. (Article 16)
    •  Persons in preventive custody or sentenced to simple imprisonment may not work, unless they so wish. (Article 24)
    • According to the provisions of the Criminal Procedure Law, every convicted person has the right to correspond or telephone their family twice a month for a fee, and to be visited by his family twice a month, under the supervision of the prison’s administration and in accordance to the procedures determined by the internal regulations. (Article 38).
    • And those held in remand are entitled to the same right, unless a decision is issued by the competent public prosecutor or the competent investigative judge otherwise, in accordance with the procedures established by the internal regulations.
    • Persons in preventive detention are allowed to have sporting queues for two hours per day (one hour in the morning and one hour in the evening) during the period of their detention. (Article 85 bis 3).
    • The period of regular and private visits in accordance with the law is sixty minutes, and the prison warden may extend the period if necessary. (Article 71)
    • (Article 83) lists in detail the items that pretrial detainees can have in their prison rooms including; “a bed, a mattress, a pillow, a wool blanket (and two in winter), a mat, a wood chair, and iron bracket, an iron dish, a soap (in case there is no sink or faucet in the room), a small table, a mirror, a bowl and dish for drinking water, hair brush, a comb, a fork and spoon, a cup and a small metal plate.”
    • The right to bring basic amenities from outside the prison
    • Article 8: “… It is permissible to bring, at their own expense, from outside the prison: a bed, a mattress, a pillow, and a bathrobe, or to possess family photos, books, journals and magazines, or tools of lightening…Cigarettes, fruit, candy, and different foods are also allowed to be brought in visitation.”
    • The right to possess books, newspapers and magazines
    • Article 15: “Persons in preventive detention have the right to bring whatever books, newspapers and magazines they are authorized to have…”.
    • The right to a medical examination
    • Article 27: “The prison’s physician shall examine every prisoner immediately upon his admission to prison, but no later than the morning of the following day, and shall register his health condition and the type of work he is able to perform…He shall visit every prisoner in solitary confinement daily…”
    •  The right to healthy food
    • Article 45 specifies the daily diet that prison administration distributes on detainees based on a predefined schedule- amended in 2001- which includes: bread, beans, cheese, and eggs for breakfast- meat, rice, and vegetables for lunch- and cheese and beans for dinner.
    • Article 46 also stipulates that food should be served hot and cooked well.
    • The right for those held in solitary confinement to a daily medical follow-up
    • Article 31: If the prison’s physician determines that the health of a prisoner is at risk because of the period that he spends in solitary confinement, he shall inform the prison’s director or superintendent in writing of the means that in his opinion will eliminate this risk. The prison’s director or superintendent shall implement the recommendations of the prison’s physician”.
    • The right to keep up a correspondence
    • Article 60: “Persons in preventive custody have the right to keep (send or receive) a correspondence at any time. The prison administration shall transfer the papers and all implements that are necessary for writing letters.”
    •  The right to use writing implements/instruments
    • Article 67: “The prison administration allows persons in preventive detention to use papers and all other necessary writing implements/instruments”.
    •  The right to carry on the religious duties
    • Article 74: “A priest is allowed to visit members of his Congregations and to eat the Eucharist”

 

  • The right to meet his lawyer individually 

 

    • Article 39: The lawyer of a prisoner shall be allowed to meet with him alone, provided a written permission is obtained from the Public Prosecution, and from the investigating judge in cases he is entrusted with investigating, whether the meeting is at the request of the prisoner or the lawyer.

 

  • The right to prevent the authorities to contact him

 

  • Article 79: None of the Authority’s men shall be allowed to communicate with a person in preventive custody without a written authorization from the Public Prosecution. The prison’s director or superintendent shall register in the record of daily prison events the name of the person so authorized, the time of the meeting and the date and content of the authorization.

Are there alternatives for pretrial detention? 

  • Yes, there are several alternatives for preventive detention that are permitted by law for the public prosecution or courts that consider the detention of pretrial detainees. These alternatives, which are known as precautionary measures, are:
  1. Compelling the accused person not to leave his home or country
  2. Compelling the accused person to present himself/herself at the police station at specific times
  3. Prohibiting the accused person from going to certain places.

 

What would be the legal procedure in case the accused violates such obligations? 

– If the accused person doesn’t comply with the aforementioned obligations imposed by any of the precautionary measures, he may be remanded in custody again upon a substantiated order by the competent authorities.

Are there rules that regulate these precautionary measures?

  • Of course, the same rules prescribed with regard to pretrial detention shall also be applicable to precautionary measures; in terms of the duration of the measure, its extension, and its maximum limit, and the right to appeal against the decision. Hence, in case the competent public prosecutor orders any of the precautionary measures against the accused instead of pretrial detention, he must guarantee for the accused that the duration period of the measure and its extension go in accordance with the same rules established for preventive detention.

Are there rules or regulations for disciplining pretrial detainees?  

  • Yes, Article 48 of the Prison Regulation Law No. 396 of 1956 and its (Internal) Regulations/bylaws, along with its amendment by Presidential Decree No. 106 of 2015 states that: ” Persons in preventive custody shall be treated, as far as the disciplinary system is concerned, like persons who are sentenced to incarceration or prison. Nevertheless, they shall not be subjected to the punishment of transfer to a penitentiary.”

Is it permissible to compensate pretrial detainees for the period served in prison in case he is acquitted? 

  • Yes, Article 312 bis of the Criminal Procedure Code stipulated that: The Public Prosecution is obligated to publish every ruling of acquittal handed down for any pretrial detainee, as well as any order that rules the indictment against the defendant should be dismissed. The ruling should be published in two daily widely-circulated newspapers at the government’s expense and at the request of the Public Prosecution or the accused person or any of his heirs.
  • However, in case of the dismissal of the case, the Prosecution has to approve the publishing of the acquittal ruling if it is at the request of the accused or one of his heirs.
  • Moreover, the person whose freedom is restricted by prevailing the society’s right over his right to liberty and is later ordered to be released is entitled to be fairly compensated by the state. Therefore, we believe that this article paves the way for the constitutional approach embodied in Article 54 of the Egyptian Constitution, which provides for fair compensation to be paid by the state for the person whose freedom is infringed upon.

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And Egypt knows, sees while staying patient

But she passes within a wink

Reclaiming name and addresses

Poet: Abdul Rahman Al Abnoudi

 

 

About this report

This brief report contains a series of pending cases and files whose fate remains uncertain, they did raise a lot of controversy and different reactions, discussed by many media platforms, their developments were discussed and followed up by bloggers and public opinion on social media. Some of them were brought to courts.

But over time, attention to these issues has faded, among the public as well as among officials.

This decline was not due to them being resolved, nor the disclosure of facts or details about them, and it was not for taking the necessary measures to hold accountable and punish the perpetrators, but due to the abundance of new incidents and accelerating events.

Therefore, since the role of legal and human rights organizations is to sound the alarm, fight against blackout and impunity, and against the wasting of the value of justice, we have chosen to present some examples of such pending cases, remembering them, removing the dust of disregard from them. We list them in a chronological order, to ask what happened with the older ones, in order to figure out how the newest will turn out!

Examples of Pending Cases
1- Aya Hegazy and Beladi Case:
In 2013, Aya Hegazi and Mohammed Hassanein, her husband, established Beladi foundation to help street children.

On May 1, 2014, the security forces arrested Aya and her husband, while the public prosecution claimed that a report from a parent accusing the association of detaining his son was the motive for their arrest.[1]

For three years, Hegazi and Hassanein were held in pretrial detention.

On April 16, 2017, Aya and her husband were acquitted.[2]

 

Yet a question, or rather questions, remain unanswered:

  • Why did Hegazy and her husband spend three years in pretrial detention despite their innocence?
  • Is it true that the acquittal was a political decision after the intervention of US president Donald Trump, especially after the statement of the White House spokesman, Sean Spicer, to the US media confirming the US president’s intervention to release the activist who holds the American citizenship? [3]
  • Why didn’t the Egyptian side respond to Trump’s statements? And why imprison innocent people for three years?

 

2- General Ibrahim Abdul Aati and Treating AIDS with Kofta
On February 23, 2014, Major General Ibrahim Abdul Aati announced at a press conference by the Armed Forces Engineering Authority that he invented a device capable of treating both AIDS and Hepatitis C patients, Abdul Aati said: “I take the HIV from the patient and return it to him as a kofta”, therefore, the invention became known publicly by the name of “the Kofta machine”.[4] The military Engineering Authority also set June 30 of the same year as the launching date for the treatment of patients. From the date of the so-called proposal announcement till now, there has been no developments about it and it was not mentioned, except by the public as a joke.

Turning the “alleged discovery” into a joke or a substance for satire, does not prevent multiple questions from arising:

  • Why were official institutions involved in such misinformation?
  • Why didn’t an official go out publicly to discredit this claim, and declare that the one responsible will be held accountable?
  • Where is equality before the law, where the government declares day and night punishment for those who promote false news, while not only condoning these lies, but also the media close to the regime have even defamed whoever criticized the “Kofta machine”?

3- Salah Diab’s weapon case
On November 8, 2015, security forces arrested businessman Salah Diab from his home after claiming that they had found two automatic rifles with him.[5] His photo was released immediately after his arrest to show how he looked startled and broken!

On November 11, 2015, Salah Diab was released on bail of EGP 50,000.[6]

On September 18, 2017, Giza Criminal Court acquitted Salah Diab.[7]

 

It is remarkable that all speculationabout the reason behind what happened with the businessman did not include combating corruption.[8]

Circumstances surrounding the arrest of Salah Diab and his release three days later arouses  questions:

  • Is there a real case against Salah Diab or is it a show off to terrify a businessman who did something that angered the regime?
  • Why did the Ministry of Interior rush to publish his photo once he was arrested though it is known that a defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty?
  • Why did the media publish news aboutthe claim that he had weapons in his possession before continuing the investigation, as he was later acquitted?

 

4- Giulio Regeni :

The Italian PhD student, who disappeared on January 25, 2016, then his corpse was found deformed in a hole on a desert road on February 3, 2016.

The Egyptian side’s investigations have not yet resulted in anything, despite the fact that many media figures close to the government, sometimes to discredit the victim, other times claiming that a gang killed him! Especially as a statement by the Egyptian Interior Ministry on March 24, 2016, said it has eliminated a gang for taking part in the killing of Giulio Regeni, without overwhelming evidence of the allegation, prompting the Italian side not to believe the story[9] .

Several meetings and discussions between the Egyptian and Italian investigation teams were held, and nothing was added except more ambiguity and vagueness, in which light went down on the case and the question remained:

  • Why did the identity of the killers remain suspended, arousing doubts and opening the door for the question: is there a deliberate attempt to cover up the case and extend the investigation endlessly!

But the Italian prosecutor, addressing parliament in December 2019, accused Egyptian officials of attempting to mislead investigations[10] This was followed by a decision by the Egyptian Public Prosecutor in January 2020 to form a new investigative committee to take over the case[11].

 

  • The Five accused of murdering Giulio Regeni:

Tarek Saad, Saad Tarek; a father and son and their in-law Salah Ali, along with Ibrahim Farouq, a micro bus driver and Mostafa Bakr, Salah’s friend: five murdered victims. After the Interior Ministry declared the elimination of a five-member gang, claiming that the victims were specialized in kidnapping foreigners and stealing them by force, in an attempt that was doomed to fail to close the Italian researcher’s murder file. They even claimed that they had the Regeni’s bag. But they were declared innocent afterwards, and the question remains:

  • Who stands behind an attempt to close the case of Regeni by killing innocent individuals who were proven to have nothing with his case according to evidence shown by their families.[12]
  • How did the elimination process pass without accountability?
  • Who are they and why weren’t they punished for what they have done?

 
5- The Escape of Habib al-Adly:
On May 15, 2017, the Ministry of Interior notified the Public Prosecutor’s Office that Habib al-Adly had escaped from his home and could not be arrested to carry out the sentence imposed by the Criminal Court in the case of the seizure of Interior Ministry funds[13]، despite his lawyer’s statement that al-Adly would attendthe Cassation court session in person[14].

Habib al-Adly appeared in the Court of Cassation,  the appeal was accepted. He was acquitted after being retried on May 9, 2019, session.

Yet some questions need answers:

  • Did the Ministry of Interior exert enough efforts to arrest al-Adly during his escape before the acceptance of the appeal?
  • Nobody knows how could al-Adly be acquitted meanwhile official gazettes published numerous reports about his wealth which amounted to billions?

 
6- Assaulting Counselor Hisham Genina:
On January 27, 2018, former CAA chief Counselor Hisham Genina was assaulted by unknown assailants with cold weapons[15].

This incident came before his arrest on 13 February 2018[16].

After being held in custody for a few days, the assailants were acquitted and released on the basis of forensic reports that incriminated the Counselor, as the former head of the Central Auditing Agency (CAA) turned from a victim to a perpetrator[17].

The prosecution appealed against the decision to release the assailants, the appeal was rejected and the decision to release them was upheld.

The unanswered question remains:

  • How were the defendants acquitted?And how did they become victims instead of assailants?

 
7- Mostafa Al Naggar’s disappearance:
In September 2018, Dr. Mostafa al-Naggar disappeared and the news of his disappearance followed a major uproar, which was terminated by the Al-Dostor newspaper by publishing the news of his arrest on 13 October 2018.”https://www.dostor.org/2358355” But Egyptian authorities denied knowing his whereabouts nor arresting him, which raised a state of anxiety and many questions :

  • What about the news published by the newspaper Al-Dostor, whose editor-in-chief is close to the government?
  • What about engineer Wael Ghuneim, who announced through a video recorded in February 2020, that Mostafa al-Naggar died while trying to escape through the country’s southern border[18]?
  • The government is not only responsible for not hiding citizens, but also for searching for missing people, why the interior did not announce a search for a former MP, an Egyptian citizen, while it issues a statement for almost every incident?

 
8- Repeatative assaults against Gamal Eid:
Despite the repeated attacks on human rights lawyer and director of the Arabic Network for Human Rights Information Gamal Eid, and the filing of a report each time with the details of these attacks, the reports always reach a standstill and an unknown fate. To raise real questions that raise doubts about the unknown/known:

  • In the stealing of his car incident, despiteinformation about the thieves, and footage of the car from security cameras, why was the case frozen? And the car remains stolen?
  • In the physical assault incident against him causing fractured ribs, despite hearing witnesses, having the prosecution to examine the place and watching videos that confirm the violent act, why didn’t the prosecution investigate the police officers of Basatin police station who deliberately provided them with false investigations?
  • In the incident of smashing the car Gamal Eid borrowed from his colleague, the damage and smashes were apparent, the prosecution examined the scene.Why did the prosecution consider it an act of vandalism?A mere violation? Why didn’t it hold the culprits accountable?
  • After human rights lawyer Gamal Eid was attacked for the fourth time by armed officers, his face and his clothes were drenchedin paint, why didn’t the prosecution investigate the crime scene despite its promises to do so?
  • Why did it ask the police officers of Al Basatin police station to present investigations, while they are opponents?
  • Does the prosecution close the case deliberately without uncovering the assailants or punishing them to contribute to the phenomenon of impunity?

 
9- Death of Shadi Habash during his illegal detention:
A 20-year-old Egyptian filmmaker contributed to the release of a satirical political song, then he was punished by imprisonment in March 2018, pending case 480 for 2018State Security. Shadi Habash exceeded the maximum legal limit for pretrial detention in March 2020. He was not released. On May 2, 2020, friends and family of Shadi Habash were surprised by the news of his death in prison!

Legal and serious questions:

  • How did Shadi die?

 

  • Why did the Public Prosecution, in its statement, ignore the fact that he had exceeded the limit for pretrial detention and became illegally imprisoned?
  • What about the responsibility of the prison physician who misdiagnosed Shadi’s case and consequently prescribed for him the wrong medication for Alcohol intoxication?
  • Why does the Public Prosecutor continue to impose prolonged pretrial detention, which is illegal and unfair, like the case of Shadi and the above-mentioned case of Aya Hegazy?

 

Conclusion:

These are some pending cases that repeat certain questions and remind of them, in an attempt to urge the Egyptian authorities to show political and legal will to implement the law and put an end to its violation, and to stop the diluting of justice by blacking out these cases and others, which waste the citizens’ right to feel safe, secure and the belief of equality before the law.

An attempt to stop the destabilization of the citizens’ trust in the justice system and in the values of justice and humanity. A question remains, that needs to be raised and insisting on demanding an answer for, in order to avoid reaching this state of mistrust between the citizen and the justice system:

When will all these questions be answered concerning the above-mentioned cases, as well as other pending cases?

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[1]                                             BBC: Who is Aya Hegazy that America asks Egypt to release?- Published September 21, 2016 – last visit: May 2020 https://www.bbc.com/arabic/middleeast/2016/09/160920_egypt_aya_usa

[2]                                             Al Youm Al Sabee: With pictures. Aya Hegazy embraces her husband inside the cage after being acquitted of human trafficking – Published April 16, 2017 – Browsed May 2020 https://www.youm7.com/story/2017/4/16/%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%88%D8%B1-%D8%A2%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%AD%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B2%D9%89-%D8%AA%D8%AD%D8%AA%D8%B6%D9%86-%D8%B2%D9%88%D8%AC%D9%87%D8%A7-%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%AE%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D9%81%D8%B5-%D8%A8%D8%B9%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%83%D9%85-%D8%A8%D8%A8%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A1%D8%AA%D9%87%D9%85%D8%A7/3192415

[3]                                             Al Masry Al Youm: Trump and the innocence of Aya Hegazy – Published April 23, 2017 – browsed May 2020 https://www.almasryalyoum.com/news/details/1122630

[4]                                             The Egyptian daily Al-Masry Al-Youm: The full story of the AIDS and Hepatitis C Treatment System (chronological) – Published June 23, 2014 – Date of browsing May 2020                https://www.almasryalyoum.com/news/details/469329

 

[5]                                             Al Dostor: Salah Diab’s son is imprisoned for 4 days for possessing a weapon without a license – Published November 8, 2015 – Date of browsing May 2020                https://www.dostor.org/925466

 

[6]                                             Al Youm Al Sabee: Salah Diab and his son Tawfiq were released on bail – Published November 11, 2015 – Date of browsing May 2020 https://www.youm7.com/story/2015/11/11/%D8%A5%D8%AE%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D8%B3%D8%A8%D9%8A%D9%84-%D8%B1%D8%AC%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B9%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%84-%D8%B5%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AD-%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%A8-%D9%88%D9%86%D8%AC%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%81%D9%8A%D9%82-%D8%A8%D9%83%D9%81%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A9/2435873

[7]                                     .Al Shorouk: Businessman Salah Diab cleared of Arms possession charge – Published September 18, 2017 – Date of Browse May 2020 https://www.shorouknews.com/news/view.aspx?cdate=18092017&id=f6ce025c-b247-464e-86cc-df09f4efce68

 

[8]                                             Al Shorouk: Salah Diab’s arrest: ‘Anything but fighting Corruption’ – Published November 15, 2015 – Date of Browse May 2020 https://www.shorouknews.com/columns/view.aspx?cdate=15112015&id=97d5168f-fb28-453c-8fd0-4b70ef678ac6

[9]                                             Masrawi: First Italian response to “Interior” statement on Giulio Regini’s killers Posted on 24 March 2016 – May 2020 https://www.masrawy.com/news/news_egypt/details/2016/3/25/775165/%D8%A3%D9%88%D9%84-%D8%B1%D8%AF-%D8%A5%D9%8A%D8%B7%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89-%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%AE%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A8%D8%B4%D8%A3%D9%86-%D9%82%D8%AA%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%AC%D9%88%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%88-%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%AC%D9%8A%D9%86%D9%8A

[10]                                         BBC: Italian prosecution says Egyptian security services have fabricated stories of mislead the investigations – dated 18 December 2019 – browsing date May 2020 https://www.bbc.com/arabic/middleeast-50840214

[11]                                         Sky News: Egypt announces new decision in Italian student Regeni’s murder case – Published January 15, 2020 – browsing date May 2020 https://www.skynewsarabia.com/middle-east/1313005-%D9%85%D8%B5%D8%B1-%D8%AA%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%86-%D9%82%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A7-%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%AF%D8%A7-%D9%82%D8%B6%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%85%D9%82%D8%AA%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B7%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%95%D9%8A%D8%B7%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A-%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%AC%D9%8A%D9%86%D9%8A

[12]                                         Dot Masr: For the first time. The five killed stories in the “Regini incident” by their parents – Published April 6, 2016 – browsing history May 2020http://www.dotmsr.com/news/196/495612/%D9%84%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%88%D9%84%D9%89-%D9%82%D8%B5%D8%B5-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%82%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AE%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%AD%D8%A7%D8%AF%D8%AB-%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%AC%D9%8A%D9%86%D9%8A-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89-%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86

[13]                                         Al-Masry Al-Youm: Al-Interior Ministry officially notified the prosecution: Habib Al-Adly’s escape from his home and search is underway – Published May 15, 2017 – Date of browsing May 2020 https://www.almasryalyoum.com/news/details/1134265

[14]                                         Akhbar Al Youm: 10 Information summarizing Al-Adly’s journey from ‘escape’ until his surrender – Published on 11 January 2018 – browsing history May 2020 https://akhbarelyom.com/news/newdetails/2602834/1/10-%D9%85%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%88%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%AA%D9%84%D8%AE%D8%B5-%D8%B1%D8%AD%D9%84%D8%A9–%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%A7%D8%AF%D9%84%D9%8A–%D9%85%D9%86–%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%A8–%D8%AD%D8%AA%D9%89-%D8%AA%D8%B3%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%85-%D9%86%D9%81%D8%B3%D9%87

[15]                                 Al Masry Al Youm: Unknown people attack Hisham Genina with white weapons. His lawyer reveals the details – Published January 27, 2018 – May 2020 https://www.almasryalyoum.com/news/details/1250798

 

[16]                                 BBC: Egyptian security forces arrest Hisham Genina after his statements on Sami Annan – Published February 13, 2018 – browsing date May 2020 https://www.bbc.com/arabic/middleeast-43044432

 

[17]                                 Al Bawaba News: By Documents: Forensic report shows Hisham Genina was lying  – Published January 30, 2018 – Date of Browseback May 2020 https://www.albawabhnews.com/2923751

 

[18]                                         Al Dostor: Wael Ghoneim settles the debate over the fate of Mustafa Al-Najjar, published February 15, 2020, the date of the browsing May 2020 https://www.dostor.org/3002890